Students identified as having dyslexia typically experience primary difficulties in phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness and manipulation, single-word reading, reading fluency, and spelling. Consequences may include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression. These difficulties in phonological awareness are unexpected in relation to the student's age and educational level and are not primarily the result of a language difference. Additionally, there is often a family history of similar difficulties.
The following are the primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:
- Difficulty reading words in isolation
- Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words
- Difficulty with oral reading (slow, inaccurate, or labored)
- Difficulty with spelling
The International Dyslexia Association defines "dyslexia" as follows:
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
The reading and spelling characteristics of dyslexia are most often associated with the following:
- Segmenting, blending and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness)
- Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds
- Holding information about sounds and words in memory (phonological memory)
- Rapidly recalling the names of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet (rapid naming)
It is important to note that individuals demonstrate differences in degree of impairment and may not exhibit all characteristics listed above.
*Many of the characteristics associated with dyslexia are also found in children with other specific learning disabilities or with speech/spoken language disorders. Some of the characteristics may also be present in some young children in the course of normal development. While the focus is early intervention, a student must be allowed the opportunity to develop both academically and cognitively.Ponder ISD has chosen the MTA - Multisensory Teaching Approach Program as the district dyslexia intervention program.